Jews in large numbers first settled in the Castle Hill of Buda in the 13th century when the Hungarian king, Béla IV, enlisted their financial support to help rebuild the city following the Mongol and Tatar attacks that left the city decimated. Life for Jews in medieval Hungary alternated between long periods of civic, commercial, and religious liberties, and occasional pogroms. For example, Jews were briefly expelled from Buda in 1348 because locals accused them of spreading the plague.
During the city's Ottoman occupation, Jews gained considerable autonomy—they were permitted to trade all across the Ottoman Empire and to practice their religion. There were both Ashkenazi and Sephardic communities in Buda, each with its own synagogue on what was then called "Jewish Street" (today's Táncsics Mihály Street; the small Sephardic prayer room still exists and can be visited). Following the defeat of the Ottomans in 1686, the allied Christian forces ravaged and looted the Jewish Quarter, killing and purging most of its residents.
In more modern times, Jews once again played an important role in Budapest’s economic and cultural development, especially starting in the early 1800s. Budapest's relatively welcoming environment—Jews gained civic equality in 1867—and appeal as a thriving city teeming with business opportunities drew many Jewish people. By 1910, over 23 percent of the city's population was Jewish.
Most of the over 200,000 Budapest Jews belonged to the progressive “Neolog” faction (orthodox Jews mainly lived in the Hungarian countryside). Neologs, while adhering to Jewish religious laws, believed in the evolution of Judaism and a non-literal interpretation of the Torah. They integrated into the local society, for instance by speaking Hungarian rather than Yiddish or German. Orthodox Jews deeply resented the Neolog's assimilation efforts, and following the 1868 Hungarian Jewish Congress, the two factions officially separated (there was a third, smaller group called "Status Quo Ante" that wanted to keep things as they had been). It's because of this breakup that Budapest's old Jewish Quarter has three synagogues so close to one another, one for each of the three factions.
Neologs quickly became the backbone of Budapest’s middle class society—besides commerce, where over 60 percent of Budapest’s merchants were Jewish in 1910, Jews were over-represented in medicine (59 percent of doctors) and law (61 percent of lawyers). Also, many Jewish businessmen founded industrial companies that laid the foundations of modern capitalist corporate culture.
Jews were punching above their weight in arts and sciences, too. Ironically, many of them became internationally known after they were forced to leave the increasingly anti-Semitic Hungary in the 1930s. These include John von Neumann, Marcel Breuer, László Moholy Nagy, Robert Capa, and Andre Kertész, just to name a few.
There are several possible explanations for the rise of anti-Semitism following WWI. Hungary lost two-thirds of its territory after the war, turning it into a predominantly Hungarian country (in 1910, only 54 percent of the population was Hungarian, with meaningful Romanian, Slovakian, German, and Serbian minorities). This meant that post-WWI, the government no longer had to rely politically on Hungarian Jews to tilt the ethnic scale toward a Hungarian majority.
Furthermore, Hungarians who now fell outside the borders of the mother country began to trickle into Budapest, and often found it difficult to land a job, which they blamed on the Jews, who held many of the middle-class positions. This resentment led to the numerus clausus of 1920, which limited the proportion of Jews in Hungarian higher education. Three additional anti-Semitic laws followed between 1938 and 1941, which ultimately stripped Jews of their most basic human rights: intermarriage and even sexual intercourse were banned between Jewish men and Christian women.
Events turned truly tragic after March 1944, when the German army occupied Hungary. The local Hungarian gendarmerie willingly executed the orders of the pro-German government and deported 437,000 Jews from the Hungarian countryside to concentration camps, mostly to Auschwitz.
Jews of Budapest were initially quarantined in “starred houses,” then in October 1944 Germans and Hungarian Nazis herded them—about 70,000 people—into a makeshift ghetto inside the Jewish Quarter where thousands died of hunger and epidemics before Soviet troops liberated the area on January 18, 1945. Jews who had some connections sought refuge in so-called "protected houses" in the Újlipótváros neighborhood. Foreign diplomats like the Swiss Carl Lutz and the Swedish Raoul Wallenberg designated these buildings under the protectorship of their home countries, so trying to keep the Nazis away. Nonetheless, raids and mass executions were still regular.
Overall, more than 500,000 Hungarian Jews died during the Holocaust, and thousands of survivors left the country immediately after the war, and later, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
With an estimated population of 80,000 (less than 10 percent practicing Jews), Budapest is still home to by far the largest Jewish community in Central and Eastern Europe. This is most visible during the High Holidays—Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur—when the enormous, and usually deserted Dohány Street Synagogue fills to capacity. Jews live in all parts of the city, but many of them are still in the former Jewish Quarter and, especially the well-to-do, in Újlipótváros. Most orthodox Jews left Hungary by 1956, but the few remaining members live near their central synagogue on Kazinczy Street. During Sukkot, you can still see their sukkah (booth) set up in the synagogue's courtyard.
Today, 16 synagogues operate across Budapest—31 in greater Hungary—with a total congregation of a few-thousand members. Most still belong to the assimilated Neolog faction (they have the highest number of functional synagogues, 11, led by the one in Dohány Street), followed by the increasingly active Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidics, and the Autonomous Orthodox Jewish Community. A total of five elementary, middle and high schools provide Jewish education alongside the Hungarian curricula in Budapest. The city is also home to Central Europe's only university of Jewish studies, but since the university historically belongs to the Neologs, Hungarian orthodox Jews attend yeshivas in Vienna or Jerusalem instead.
There are only three glatt kosher restaurants, three kosher convenience stores, and just a single kosher pastry shop and bakery each. Some of this is obviously the result of the Holocaust and the ensuing Jewish migration away from Hungary, but it's also because Budapest's assimilated Jews aren't kosher. Several restaurants, however, serve excellent kosher-style food in Budapest.
The streets and dilapidated buildings of the former Jewish Quarter have been revitalized, today bristling with art galleries, shops, and cafés. This area has become the epicenter of nightlife, known especially for its ruin bars. Perhaps the most symbolic sign of the neighborhood's transformation is that Szimpla Kert, the world-famous ruin bar, is adjacent to Budapest's only functional Jewish ritual bath (mikveh).
If you've found this useful, please consider supporting Offbeat. Our content is free, so your contributions go a long way toward maintaining and growing the website.